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Chicago Style Citations

Important Terms

Following is a list of terms with definitions that should be helpful in understanding the vocabulary that goes along with Chicago Style citation.  


Recognizing the sources of information and ideas in your project.


Taking and using the words or ideas of someone else and representing them as your own.


Taking information that you have read from another source and putting it into your own words. Paraphrased information is followed by a citation. 


Taking text originally published elsewhere, and copying it. Direct quotations appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.

In-text citation:

A brief note describing the sources in your paper or project, within the text of the paper itself, to indicate where the information came from. An in-text citation should match more detailed information that is available in the reference list.


Contains details on all of the sources cited in a paper and is usually found at the end of the paper.  


A reference note that is found at the bottom of each page of text. 


A reference note that is found at the end of a section of text (i.e., at the end of a paragraph/chapter). 

Block quotation/extract:

A style of quotation that is used for five or more lines of quoted text, two or more lines or poetry, and two or more lines of dialogue. 

DOI (doi):

Some electronic content (i.e. online academic journal articles) is assigned a number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI or doi). This system can be really helpful because items can be tracked down online using the doi.

Commonly Used Abbreviations

Appendix: app.

Article: art.

Chapter: chap. 

Division: div. 

Editor, Edited by, Edition: ed.

Editors: eds. 

et alii, et aliae (and others): from Latin- et al. 

Manuscript: MS

No date of publication: n.d.

Number(s): no. (nos.)

No place: n.p.

Page(s): p. (pp.)

Paragraph: para.

Part: pt. 

Revised: rev.

Section: sec.

Series: ser.

Supplement: Suppl.

Translator(s): trans. 

Volume : vol.