Notes and Bibliography System Basics
The notes and bibliography citation method is used by professionals in humanities, such as literature, history, and the arts. This system of citation uses numbered footnotes or endnotes for its citations. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page the source is cited on, endnotes are at the end of the document. A bibliography will be found at the end of the academic writing.
The structure of footnotes and endnotes is the same. The author's first name appears after the note number. It is then followed by the title (italicized or enclosed in quotations marks and not italicized). The facts of publication (i.e. publisher, date, etc.) appear in parenthesis at the end of the note. Elements are separated by commas. Words like editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated. See the examples throughout the guide for further details.
A footnote will be added at the bottom of the page on which the source is utilized. Endnotes should be listed at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document. They are not to be placed at the end of each page on which the source was used.
The first note number should be "1", and each consecutive note will follow in numerical order, throughout the academic work.
To cite multiple sources in one note, separate the sources with a semicolon. If the citations are to several works or quotations in the text, the order should be the same as it is in the text.
Author's or editor's names are an essential part of a note. Some works have multiple authors and some are anonymous.
No person's name given on the title page
The date may be missing from a work's title page. If this is the case, put n.d. (not in italics) in place of the date in the note.
Abbreviated notes can be used once the source has been fully cited either in a previous note or in a bibliography. The basic structure is the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the page number separated by commas. Abbreviated notes are to be favored over the use of ibid, idem, loc. cit. and op. cit.
The bibliography entries are much like the notes entries in the Notes and Bibliography system, a notable exception being that the first author's name appears last name first. Elements are separated by periods instead of commas. Also, facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses.
Names in bibliography entries
When there is no date of publication given, n.d. takes its place.