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Create Your Chicago Style Citations

Book Citation Basics

Books

In a note entry, book citations should include, among other things, the author's name, the title, and the editor, compiler, or translator. Note that if there is an editor, compiler or translator, their names should appear after the title along with some indication of the person's role (e.g. "edited by" or ed.) Publication information such as place, publisher and date should also be included, along with page numbers for cited text. Also, the following information should be included when applicable.

  • Edition number, if not the first edition.
  • Volume number unless the work is cited as a whole.
  • If the work is a part of series, that title should also be included
  • If the book was consulted online, include the URL.

One Author Book Citation

Notice that the author’s name is inverted in the bibliography but not in the notes. Also, the page numbers are included in the notes but not the bibliography.

Note: 

2. S.E. Hinton, The Outsiders (New York: Viking, 1967), 27. 

Bibliography: 

Hinton, S. E. The Outsiders. New York: Viking, 1967.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Hinton 1967, 27)

Reference list: 

Hinton, S.E. 1967. The Outsiders. New York: Viking.

Book with More Than One Author

In the case of two to three authors, they are to be listed in the order that they appear as authors. If there are four or more authors use "et. al." after the first author's name in the note, but include all authors in the bibliography (up to ten authors).

Note: 

3. Jerold J. Kreisman and Hal Straus, I Hate You, Don't Leave Me: Understanding the Borderline Personality (New York: Perigee Books, 1989), 27-32. 

Bibliography: 

Kreisman, Jerold J., and Hal Straus. I Hate You, Don't Leave Me: Understanding the Borderline Personality. New York: Perigee Books, 1989.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Kreisman and Straus 1989, 27-32). 

Reference list: 

Kreisman, Jerold J., and Hal Straus. 1989. I Hate You, Don't Leave Me: Understanding the Borderline Personality. New York: Perigee Books. 

Translated Book

In notes, translator(s) can be abbreviated as "trans." In the bibliography, abbreviations are not to be used, and instead the full word is to be utilized.

Note: 

4. Patrick Suskind, Perfume: The Story of a Murderer, trans. John E. Woods (London: Penguin Books, 2007), 25.

Bibliography: 

Suskind, Patrick. Perfume: The Story of a Murderer. Translated by John E. Woods. London: Penguin Books, 2007.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Suskind 2007, 25). 

Reference list: 

Suskind, Patrick. 2007. Perfume: The Story of a Murderer. Translated by John E. Woods. London: Penguin Books.

Book with Author and Editor

In notes, editor(s) can be abbreviated as "ed." or "eds." In the bibliography, abbreviations are not to be used, and instead the full word is to be utilized.

Note: 

5. Diane Keaton, Let's Just Say It Wasn't Pretty, ed. David Ebershoff (New York: Random House, 2014).

Bibliography: 

Keaton, Diane. Let's Just Say It Wasn't Pretty. Edited by David Ebershoff. New York: Random House, 2014.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Keaton 2014)

Reference list: 

Keaton, Diane. 2014. Let's Just Say It Wasn't Pretty, edited by David Ebershoff. New York: Random House. 

Citing a Chapter from a Book

When citing a chapter, the title is to be in quotation marks, and will follow after the author's last name. The bibliography, or references list, should also include either the chapter number or inclusive pages.

Note: 

6. Marshall B. Rosenberg, “Taking Responsibility for Our Feelings,” in Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion (Del Mar, CA: PuddleDancer Press, 2002), 29.

Bibliography: 

Rosenberg, Marshall B. “Taking Responsibility for Our Feelings.” In Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion, 25-35. Del Mar, CA: PuddleDancer Press, 2002.

Bibliography (chapter number): 

Rosenberg, Marshall B. “Taking Responsibility for Our Feelings.” Chap. 2 in Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion, 25-35. Del Mar, CA: PuddleDancer Press, 2002.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Rosenberg 2002, 29)

Reference list: 

Rosenberg, Marshal B. 2002. "Taking Responsibility for Our Feelings." In Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Compassion, 25-35. Del Mar, CA: PuddleDancer Press.

Book Consulted Online

When a book is consulted online, include the URL at the end of the citation. In notes, if no page number is available, use the URL or DOI for the chapter rather than the one for the whole book. If a book is accessed from a library database where no chapter level URL or DOI is available, list the name of the database (e.g. Gale eBooks).

Note: 

7. Dudley D. Cahn and Ruth Anna Abigail, Managing Conflict through Communication (Boston: Pearson, 2014),  https://www.pearson.com/store/en-us/pearsonplus/p/9780137614738.html.

Bibliography: 

Cahn, Dudley D., and Abigail, Ruth Anna. Managing Conflict through Communication. Boston: Pearson, 2014. https://www.pearson.com/store/en-us/pearsonplus/p/9780137614738.html.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Cahn and Abigail 2014)

Reference list: 

Cahn, Dudley D., and Abigail, Ruth Anna. 2014. Managing Conflict through Communication. Boston: Pearson.  https://www.pearson.com/store/en-us/pearsonplus/p/9780137614738.html.

E-Books

When citing an e-book, authors must indicate at the end of the citation which file format the book is in and/or the application or devise used to read the book (e.g. PDF, Kindle). If the file format is included when the e-book is acquired, include that information too. For example, Adobe Digital Editions EPUB.

If no page number is available in the e-book edition, use the chapter number or a section heading instead.

Note: 

8. Angela Duckworth, Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (New York: Scribner, 2016), Kindle. 

Bibliography: 

Duckworth, Angela. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. New York: Scribner, 2016. Kindle. 

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Duckworth 2016)

Reference list: 

Duckworth, Angela. 2016. Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance. New York: Scribner. Kindle.

Theses/Dissertations

Note: 

9. Calum Marr, "The Effect of Increased Cognitive Load on Implicit Moral Judgement: Do We Deliberately Override Our Moral Intuitions?" (master's thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2016), http://hdl.handle.net/1842/21986.

Bibliography: 

Marr, Calum. "The Effect of Increased Cognitive Load on Implicit Moral Judgement: Do We Deliberately Override Our Moral Intuitions?" master's thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/21986.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Marr 2016)

Reference list: 

Marr, Calum. 2016. "The Effect of Increased Cognitive Load on Implicit Moral Judgement: Do We Deliberately Override Our Moral Intuitions?" master's thesis, University of Edinburgh. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/21986.

Dictionary Entry

Although well known dictionaries and other familiar reference sources typically only appear in the notes and not in bibliographies, we have included a bibliography and works cited list example here. Keep the following in mind when citing this type source include.

  • Entries from sources that are arranged alphabetically should include the entry name with s.v. before it.
  • If the source being cited is a multivolume work, the number of volumes follows the title.
  • If the work also is not a first edition, the number of volumes follows the edition number.
  • If a source is found online and no last modified date is available use and access date in its place.

Print source example

Note:

10. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. 20 vols. (1989), s.v. "vivification."

Bibliography: 

Please note that well known sources such as the The Oxford English Dictionary do not need full bibliography entries. 

The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 20 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Online dictionary example

Note:

11. OED Online, s.v. "vivification (n.)," last modified March 2022, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/224200?redirectedFrom=vivification.

Bibliography:

If this source was a lesser known source the bibliography entry would look like this.

OED Online. s.v. "vivification (n.)," last modified March 2022, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/224200?redirectedFrom=vivification.

In text:

(OED Online, s.v. "vivification [n.]")

Reference list:

OED Online. 2022.  s.v. "vivification (n.)," last modified March, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/224200?redirectedFrom=vivification.

Sacred Texts

References to the Bible, Jewish or Christian, usually appear in the body of the paper rather than in the notes and bibliography. The reference within the text should include the name of the book followed by the chapter and verse cited.  A colon should separate the chapter and verse. When a traditional book abbreviation is used (e.g. Prov. for Proverbs), it is followed by a period unless a shortened abbreviation is used (e.g. Pr. for Proverbs).  (See section10:45 of the Chicago Manual of Style for a complete list of traditional and shortened book abbreviations). Since book, chapter, and verse will suffice, there is no need to include a page number in the citation.

The name of the translation should also be included in parentheses following the book, chapter, and verse. Use either the full name of the version or an abbreviation. See section 10.48 of the Chicago Manual of Style for a list of version abbreviations.  

Examples of how a text is referenced in a sentence:

Proverbs 31:26 (English Standard Version)

Prov. 31:26 (ESV)

Prv 31:26 (KJV)

Other texts

Citations are formed similarly to citations to the Bible. Some indication of the version or translator should also be included.

Examples of how a text is referenced in a sentence:

Koran 18:16 (George Sale)