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Create Your Chicago Style Citations

Images, Video, and Audio Basics

Images, Video, and Audio Basics

Citations for multimedia should include the name of the person primarily responsible for the work, the title of the work, names of contributors when appropriate, and publication information. Also include the following.

  • The work's medium (e.g. DVD, MP3, YouTube video, etc.)
  • Additional information relevant to the citation.
  • URL when the source is found online.

The order and particulars of the elements in these citations will depend on what type of source is being cited and on whether a part of the work is being cited or the work as a whole is (e.g. a TV series versus on an episode). See examples below for details.

Film

You are able to cite the entire film or a specific scene from the film. To cite a scene, simply place the title of the scene in quotation marks, and place it before the title of the entire film. In the examples below, 1994 is the date of the film's release and 2019 is the date the the Blu-ray was published.

Note:

1. Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis (1994; Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2019), Blu-ray. 

Bibliography: 

Zemeckis, Robert, dir. Forrest Gump. 1994; Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2019. DVD.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Zemeckis 1994)

Reference list: 

Zemeckis, Robert, dir. Forrest Gump. 1994; Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2019. DVD.

Note when citing a scene:

2.  "Life is like a Box Chocolate," Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis (1994; Los Angeles, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment, 2019), Blu-ray.

TV Series

The format for citing a TV show is similar to the format used for a film. One key difference is that you are to specify the number and title of the episode that you are referencing. Use the date the show aired in the citation.

Note:

3. Criminal Minds, season 10, episode 6, "If the Shoe Fits," directed by Bethany Rooney, aired November 5, 2014, on CBS. https://www.netflix.com/title/70153390.

Bibliography: 

Bethany Rooney, dir. Criminal Minds. Season 10, episode 6, "If the Shoe Fits." Aired November 5, 2014, on CBS. https://www.netflix.com/title/70153390.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Criminal Minds 2014)

Reference list: 

Bethany Rooney, dir. 2014. Criminal Minds. Season 10, episode 6, "If the Shoe Fits." Aired November 5, 2014, on CBS. https://www.netflix.com/title/70153390. 

YouTube and Other Online Videos

When citing an online video, you should include, the name of the video creator, the video title, the organization that is responsible for the video, the date uploaded, the medium (i.e., YouTube, New York Times), the video duration, and the URL.

Note: 

4. Green, John and Hank Green, “Consciousness: Crash Course Psychology #8,” Crash Course, March 24, 2014, YouTube video, 9:33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jReX7qKU2yc.

Bibliography: 

Green, John and Hank Green. “Consciousness: Crash Course Psychology #8.” Crash Course. March 24, 2014. YouTube video, 9:33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jReX7qKU2yc.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Green 2014)

Reference list: 

Green, John and Hank Green. 2014 “Consciousness: Crash Course Psychology #8.” Crash Course. March 24, 2014. YouTube video, 9:33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jReX7qKU2yc.

TED Talk on YouTube

Since this is a recording of a speech or performance, information about the original performance is included. So, "TED video" is included in this citation where information about publication belongs.

Note:

5. Nadine Burke Harris, "How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime," filmed February 17, 2015 in San Francisco, CA. TED video,16:02, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95ovIJ3dsNk. 

Bibliography: 

Burke Harris, Nadine. "How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime." Filmed February 17, 2015 in San Francisco, CA.  TED video,16:02. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95ovIJ3dsNk.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Burke Harris 2015) 

Reference list: 

Burke Harris, Nadine. 2015. "How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime." Filmed February 17, 2015 in San Francisco, CA. TED video,16:02.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95ovIJ3dsNk. 

Musical Score

The form of citation for a musical score is similar to a book. It should include the composer, the title, if it is an edited work, the name of the editor, followed by the publication information, and page numbers. See the Books tab for additional elements that may be included where useful. 

Note: 

6. John Phillips and Michelle Phillips, "California Dreamin'," In The Best Fake Book Ever: Over 1,000 Songs, 116. (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 1990). 

Bibliography:

Phillips, John and Michelle Phillips. "California Dreamin'." In The Best Fake Book Ever: Over 1,000 Songs, 116. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 1990.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Phillips 1990) 

Reference list:

Phillips, John and Michelle Phillips. 1990. "California Dreamin'." In The Best Fake Book Ever: Over 1,000 Songs, 116. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard.

Recording of a Song or Track

Albums / songs

Bibliography and works cited list entries should begin with the name of the performer, conductor, or composer; depending on who is more relevant to the discussion or more the focus of the recording. The primary contributor should be followed by the following elements.

  • The title of the track in quotation marks. (If the entire album or CD is being cited put the album or CD title in quotes.)
  • Additional information, including the names of additional contributors, date and location of the recording.
  • If citing a track rather than the album, the track number and album title would go here.
  • The name of the publisher. (If it is a CD or LP, include the acquisition number. For online music, list the service or file format.)
  • The medium, (e.g. CD, MP3) duration, and the number of discs.
  • Any helpful or relevant additional information.
  • If the source is online, include the URL.  

Note: 

7. Nirvana, "Smells Like Teen Spirit," track 1 on Nevermind, DGC Records GED 24425, 1991, compact disc.

Bibliography: 

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Track 1 on Nevermind. DGC Records GED 24425, 1991, compact disc.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Nirvana 1991, track 1)

Reference list: 

Nirvana. 1991. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Track 1 on Nevermind. DGC Records GED 24425, 1991, compact disc. 

Artwork

A citation for a work of art should include the artist's name, the italicized title, the date of creation, the medium, and the location of the work.

Metric dimensions in citations

No periods are to placed after abbreviations for metric units of measure. However, a period should be used after the unit of measure in the bibliography entry because a period is required between the dimension and the location of the work. The unit of measure is only placed after the last dimension.

Image of a work of art found in a book

Note:

8. Alberto Giacometti, Femme Qui Marche, 1933-1934, sculpture, 150 x 24 x 38.1 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Bibliography:

Giacometti, Alberto. Femme Qui Marche. 1933-1934. Sculpture, 150 x 24 x 38.1 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Giacometti 1933-1934)

Reference list:

Giacometti, Alberto. 1933-1934. Femme Qui Marche. Sculpture, 150 x 24 x 38.1 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Image of a work of art found online

Note:

9. Hieronymous Bosch, The Magician, 1475-1480, oil on panel, 53 x 75 cm, Musée Municipal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, https://www.wga.hu/html_m/b/bosch/1early/11magici.html.

Bibliography:

Bosch, Hieronymous. The Magician. 1475-1480. Oil on panel, 53 x 75 cm. Musée Municipal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, https://www.wga.hu/html_m/b/bosch/1early/11magici.html.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Bosch 1475-80)

Reference list:

Bosch, Hieronymous. 1475-1480. The Magician. Oil on panel, 53 x 75 cm. Musée Municipal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, https://www.wga.hu/html_m/b/bosch/1early/11magici.html.

Photograph (with title)

Like other works of art, a citation for a photograph should include the artist's name, the italicized title, the date of creation, the medium, dimensions, and the location of the work (could be in a museum, magazine, or book ). Photographs found online are formed just like one below, but with a URL followed by a period.

Note: 

10. Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936, Photograph, 20 x 15 ¾", Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

Bibliography: 

Lange, Dorothea. Migrant Mother. 1936. Photograph, 20 x 15 ¾". Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.

Author-Date in-text citation:

(Lange 1936)

Reference list:

Lange, Dorothea. 1936. Migrant Mother. Photograph, 20 x 15 ¾". Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.