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APA Style Citations

Visit this guide to find examples of APA style citations for your reference list and information about in-text citations.

Images, video, and audio  


YouTube / Video sources

You may apply the same format for other user-generated video sites like Vimeo and Twitch.

Musical Score

Place the specific type of score within square brackets after title. (e.g., "[Vocal score]")

Albums / songs

Use the performer's name as it appears on the album or song. This may be their stage name rather than their real name. See example for "Single song or track" below. 

Missing Items

At times you may encounter information that is missing or unknown when creating a citation. Below are some instructions on how to handle those situations accordingly.


For a detailed table with instructions on how to handle many types of information, see this page of the APA Style website.


For a work with no date, use the term “n.d.” for both the reference list and in-text citation:

(Author, n.d.)


For a work with no author, provide the title followed by the date and source. For the in-text citation, place the title followed by the year:

(Title, year).


For a work with no title, provide the author and date followed by a description of the work within square brackets as well as the source:

Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source.



(Chagall, 1977)

Reference list:

Chagall, M. (1977). America windows [Stained glass]. Art Institute Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Musical score


(Lloyd Webber et al., 1987)

Reference list:

Lloyd Webber, A., Hart, C. & Stilgoe, R. (1987). The phantom of the opera. [Vocal score]. The Really Useful Group Ltd.

Radio broadcast


(Horsely, 2020)

Reference list:

Horsely, S. (2020, June 16). The rich have stopped spending and that’s tanked the economy [Radio broadcast]. National Public Radio.


TED Talk on Youtube


(TED, 2020)

Reference list:

TED. (2020, May 28). The mental health benefits of storytelling for health care workers | Laurel Braitmen. [Video]. YouTube.

Youtube video


(PBS, 2020)

Reference list:

PBS. (2020, June 5). Toni Morrison: The pieces I am | Official trailer | American Masters | PBS [Video]. YouTube.

Single song or track


(Childish Gambino, 2018)

Reference list:

Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA.

An online interview in a database or collection


(Anderson, 2006)

Reference list:

Anderson, C. (2006, January 18). Interview with Charlie Anderson [Interview]. Middletown Digital Oral History Collections; Ball State University Libraries.

Clip art or stock photo that requires attribution


(Beckwith, 2017)

Reference list:

Beckwith, M. D. (2017). Little Moreton Hall The Long Gallery [Photograph]. Flickr.

TV series


(Schur et al., 2016-2020)

Reference list:

Schur, M., Goddard, D., Miner, D., & Sackett, M. (Executive Producers). (2016-2020). The good place [TV series]. Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Television.

Photograph (with title)


(Hirve, 2019)

Reference list:

Hirve, N. (2019). Wasabi sits for a portrait [Photograph]. National Public Radio.

Photograph (without title)


(Ubbe, 2019)

Reference list:

Ubbe, E. (2019). [Greta Thunburg protesting at the Swedish Parliament] [Photograph] New York Times.