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MLA Style Citations

Visit this guide to find examples of MLA style citations for your reference list and information about in-text citations.

MLA Style, 9th Edition

This guide gives examples of several types of citations for your Works Cited page for different types of items, ranging from books and articles to online videos. In-text citations are also included for each example. 

The current, 9th edition of the MLA Handbook emphasizes listing 'containers' in the citation for the Works Cited page. The 'container' is the holder of the item that you are citing - for example, if you find an article in a library database, you would include the database name in the citation (see examples under 'Academic journal articles'). If you are citing a video found on YouTube, YouTube is also included in the citation. This helps others find the sources you used.

For more information about creating MLA Style citations:

  • Contact us using our Ask a Librarian services. 
  • Consult the MLA Handbook. Two copies are available in the Reference Collection, located on the west side of the first floor of Bracken Library near the Library Information Desk. 
  • Some topics are covered in-depth on the MLA Style Center website. See especially Ask the MLA, where the MLA posts frequently asked questions. 


Abbreviations allow for a more efficient use of space on the Works Cited page. Months are among some of the most commonly abbreviated terms. Use the abbreviated forms below for the months when formatting your citations:

Jan. Apr. Oct.
Feb. Aug. Nov.
Mar.     Sept.   Dec.   


Other common abbreviations include:

Abbreviation Meaning
ch. chapter
dept. department
ed. edition
et al. and others (often used in citations when there are several authors)
no. number (used in academic journal citations for issue numbers)
par. paragraph (only used if the source you are citing has numbered paragraphs)
U University
UP University Press (often used in citations if the publisher name includes "University Press")
vol. volume (used in academic journal citations for volume numbers)

For a complete list of MLA abbreviations including those used for books of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, see the MLA Handbook pp. 293-301.