Most federal agencies and many private foundations have established requirements that grantees must openly share the results of their research with the public. These requirements vary, but many funders expect that both publications and data are made available, with flexibility in cases of copyright, privacy, or other ethical or legal concerns. Note that "public" typically does not mean "available by request," but rather that researchers should proactively share their articles and data through public data portals and funder databases such as PubMed Central.
Three excellent resources offer information on specific funder requirements:
Your data management or data sharing plan (or another section of your grant application) may include information regarding where and under what terms you will publish your findings. Some funders require a version of these publications to be made publicly available online. While some funders and publishers make this process relatively seamless, others do not, and all PIs should double-check that they are complying with any relevant policies.
It's crucial to plan early on how you will comply with your funder's data management expectations and public access requirements for data and publications. Most funders allow you to include money in your budget proposal to cover expenses like article processing charges, data storage, staff responsible for data management, etc.
If at all possible, you should include funding for likely fees in your grant budget. If you do not have access to such funds or you publish after your grant period is over, you may be able to meet your funder's requirements in one of two ways: